BASIS OF ISLAM
"La ilaha illallahu Muhammadur Rasoolullah"
Trans: There is no god but Allah, Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) is the messenger of Allah.
According to the above statement, every Muslim must believe Allah Almighty as the one and only God and must worship him alone. Further, Muslims must believe Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) as the final messenger of Allah and follow him in every aspects of life. Every Muslim should love Allah Almighty and his beloved Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) more than his soul, parents, kids and anything. That is compulsory for every Muslim.
Also every Muslim must believe all the previous Prophets who were sent by Allah Almighty before to the beloved Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Hence, Muslims believe, accept and respect all the Prophets like Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, David and Jesus (Peace be upon them). But Muslims never worship them as what Jewish and Christians do, because they are not God but the prophets of God.
FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM
Five pillars are the five practices essential to every Muslims. If a person becomes a Muslim, these five practices become obligatory upon him, provided if he fulfills the certain conditions in case of certain practices.
1. Faith (Imaan or Kalima)
2. The Prayer (Salat)
3. The Fasting (Sawm)
4. The Compulsory Charity (Zakat)
5. The Pilgrimage (Hajj)
♣ WHAT IS FAITH (IMAAN)?
Imaan is the base of Islam. Without Imaan whatever good deeds a person does, will not be accepted by Almighty Allah. We can see today many people feeding food to poor, caring orphans and orphanages, providing the medical and all types of assistance to needy. However, these all merits will be nullified due to his unbelief. If the pot is unclean, whatever Milk you pour into it also will become unclean.
Hence, every Muslim must believe 6 things in Islam. If he refutes to believe even one of them, he will not be considered as a Muslim.
♣ WHAT IS KALIMAH?
Kalimah is the statement (words) which testifies the belief of Islam. There are 5 kalimah in Islam.
1. Kalimah Thoiba
Laa ilaaha illallaahu Muhammadur Rasoolullaah
(Trans: There is no god but Allah, Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) is the messenger of Allah)
2. Kalimah Shahaada
Ash-hadu an-laa ilaaha illallaahu wahdahoo laa shareeka lahoo, wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan abduhoo wa rasooluh
(Trans: I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship besides Allah. He is alone. He has no partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and messenger)
3. Kalimah Thamjeed
Subhaanallaahi wal hamdulillaahi wa laa ilaaha illallaahu wallaahu Akbar, wa laa hawla walaa quwwata illaa billaahil aliyyil adheem
(Trans: Glory be to Allah. All praise be to Allah. There is none worthy of worship besides Allah and Allah is the Gratest. There is no power and might except from Allah, the Most High, the Great)
4. Kalimah Tawheed
Laa ilaaha illallaahu wahdahoo laa shareeka lah. Lahul mulk, wa lahul hamd, yuhyiy wa yumeet biyadihil khayr wa huwa alaa kulli shay-in qadeer
(Trans: There is none worthy of worship besides Allah who is alone. He has no partner. For him is the Kingdom, and for Him is all praise. He gives life and causes death. In His hand is all good. And He has power over everything)
5. Kalimah Radd Kufr
Allaahumma inniy a’oodhu bika min an ushrika bika shay-an wa ana a’alamu bihi wa astaghfiruka lima laa a’alamu bih. Tubtu anhu wa tabarratu minal kufri wash-shirki wal kizbi wal ma’aasi kullihaa aslamtu wa aamantu wa aqoolu laa ilaaha illallaahu Muhammadur rasoolullah
(Trans: O Allah, surely I do seek refuge in You from knowingly associating any partner with You, I beg Your forgiveness for the sin from which I am not aware of, I repent it and I declare myself free from infidelity, polytheism (associating any partner with Allah), telling lies and all other sins. I accept Islam and believe and declare that there is none worthy of worship besides Allah and Muhammad [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam] is the messenger of Allah.
♣ SIX ARTICLES OF FAITH
1. BELIEF IN ALLAH
Allah is the unique name of God. Muslims prefer to use Allah rather than God. Allah is the only God, all-powerful and all-knowing creator, sustainer, ordainer and judge of the universe. He is unique (wahid) and inherently one (ahad), all-merciful and omnipotent.
Allah says in Al Quran about him:
(O Esteemed Messenger!) Proclaim: ‘He is Allah, Who is the One. Allah is the Transcendent of all, the Protector and Far-Superior to all. He has not begotten any, nor is He begotten. Nor is there anyone equal to Him.’
(Al Quran 112: 1-4)
It is the fundamental belief of the Muslims that Allah does not resemble anything. He does not have body, face, hands, legs or any other parts. But He sees without the eyes. He hears without the ears. He exists without a place. According to Al Quran, "No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision. God is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things"
(Al Quran 6:103)
Allah created whole universe and all the creatures by his command “Kun” means “Be”. According to Al Quran,
“(He is the) Originator of the heavens and the earth. When He decides a matter, He simply says to it: “Be”, and it comes to be.”
(Al Quran 2: 117)
Further Allah says that the purpose of human creation is to worship him.
“I did not create the Jinns and the human beings except for the purpose that they should worship Me.”
(Al Quran 51: 56)
There are 99 Names of Allah which is called as “al hasma al husnaa” means "The beautiful names". Each of which evoke a distinct characteristic of Allah. All these names refer to Allah, the supreme and all-comprehensive divine name. Among the 99 names of God, the most famous and most frequent of these names are "the Merciful" (ar-raḥman) and "the Compassionate" (ar-raḥim).
2. BELIEF IN ANGELS
Belief in the angels is the part of faith of Islam. The Arabic word for angel is malaak. Angels were created from light.
Hazrat Aa’ishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported:
"The Messenger of Allah (Peace and blessings be upon him) said: ‘The angels are created from light, just as the jinn are created from smokeless fire and mankind is created from what you have been told about.’"
(Book: Sahih Muslim)
Angels do not possess free will, and worship God in total obedience. Angels' duties include communicating revelations from Allah Almighty, glorifying Allah Almighty, recording every person's actions and taking a person's soul at the time of death. They are also thought to intercede on man's behalf.
The most important names of angels and their duties are listed below:
1. Jibril (Gabriel) (Peace be upon him)
Duty: Conveying revelation to the Prophets from Allah Almighty
2. Mikkail (Michael) (Peace be upon him)
Duty: Responsible for nature and delivering food
3. Israfil (Raphael) (Peace be upon him)
Duty : Responsible for blowing the trumpet on the Day of Judgment
4. Israel (Samael) (Peace be upon him)
Duty : Responsible for death (taking a life)
5. Ridwan (Peace be upon him)
Duty : Responsible for maintaining Paradise (Jannah)
6. Maalik (Peace be upon him)
Duty : Responsible for Hellfire (Jahannam)
7. Munkar (Peace be upon him)
8. Nakir (Peace be upon him)
Duty : Responsible for testing the faith of the dead in their graves. These angels will ask the soul of the dead person questions. If the person fails the questions, the angels make the man suffer until the Day of Judgment. If the soul passes the questions, he will have a pleasant time in the grave until the Day of Judgment.
9. Raqib (Peace be upon him)
10. Atid (Peace be upon him)
Duty : Responsible for recording a person's good and bad deeds
3. BELIEF IN SCRIPTURES
Muslims believe that four Holy Scriptures were revealed by Allah Almighty to Messengers of Allah in various time periods. However, they believe that except Al Quran, all the previous books were distorted either in interpretation, text or both. Also Al Quran is the final scripture revealed by Allah Almighty for the entire people of universe.
The four books which were revealed by Allah Almighty are:
1. Tawrat - Revelaed to Prophet Musa (Moses) (Peace be upon him) - in Hibr language
2. Zabur - Revelaed to Prophet Dawud (David) (Peace be upon him) - in Greek language
3. Injil - Revelaed to Prophet Eissa (Jesus) (Peace be upon him) - in Syriac language
4. Al Quran - Revelaed to Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) - in Arabic language
In addition to the above books, Allah Almighty revealed 110 Suhufs (Commandments) to various Prophets.
Prophet Adam (Peace be upon him) - 10
Prophet Sheeth (seth) (Peace be upon him) - 50
Prophet Idris (Enoch) (Peace be upon him) - 30
Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) (Peace be upon him) - 10
Prophet Musa (Moses) (Peace be upon him) - 10
4. BELIEF IN PROPHETS
Allah created the mankind and sent the prophets to every nation throughout the history to show the straight path to the mankind. They were sent with the message of Allah and showed mankind the right path that will lead them to Paradise and to salvation from Hell-fire. All the Prophets preached to their people about the message of Islam; i.e. Allah Almighty is the one and only God and submission to the will of God.
Each prophet was sent only for his respective nation except the last prophet, beloved Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) who was sent to the entire world. The Holy Quran, the scripture which was revealed to him, is also Almighty's last testament and it is the message for whole world.
Each Prophet taught his nation about the Oneness of Allah, power of Allah, what are the halal (permissible) and what are the haram (sinful) in the religion of Allah.
It is the Islamic belief that Adam (Peace be upon him) was the first man as well a Prophet and beloved Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was the final Prophet. It is said that Allah has sent almost 124,000 Prophets to the entire world. However, 25 names of Prophets have been mentioned in Al Quran.
Names of Prophets mentioned in Al Quran:
1. Hazrat Adam (Peace be upon him)
2. Hazrat Idris (Peace be upon him)
3. Hazrat Nuh (Peace be upon him)
4. Hazrat Hud (Peace be upon him)
5. Hazrat Saleh (Peace be upon him)
6. Hazrat Ibrahim (Peace be upon him)
7. Hazrat Lut (Peace be upon him)
8. Hazrat Ismail (Peace be upon him)
9. Hazrat Ishaq (Peace be upon him)
10. Hazrat Yaqub (Peace be upon him)
11. Hazrat Yusuf (Peace be upon him)
12. Hazrat Ayyub (Peace be upon him)
13. Hazrat Shuayb (Peace be upon him)
14. Hazrat Musa (Peace be upon him)
15. Hazrat Harun (Peace be upon him)
16. Hazrat Dawud (Peace be upon him)
17. Hazrat Sulaiman (Peace be upon him)
18. Hazrat Ilyas (Peace be upon him)
19. Hazrat Alyasa (Peace be upon him)
20. Hazrat Yunus (Peace be upon him)
21. Hazrat Dhulkifl (Peace be upon him)
22. Hazrat Zakariya (Peace be upon him)
23. Hazrat Yahya (Peace be upon him)
24. Hazrat Eissa (Peace be upon him)
25. Hazrat Muhammad (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)
(Read our book - Biography of Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PROPHETS (NABI) AND MESSENGERS (RASOOL)
Messengers are the Prophets, but they were sent with new scriptures or new divine law to propagate to their nation while Prophets taught the previous established teachings to their nation. Hence, all the Messengers are the Prophets. But all the Prophets are not Messengers. It is said that Allah sent about 124,000 prophets to entire world throughout the history but out of them only 313 are messengers.
The Messengers are ranked more than the Prophets. The best of them are called, Ulul 'Azm (Possessors of strong will and perseverance), in patience and enduring difficulties, who are five:
1. Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)
2. Prophet Eissa (Jesus) (Peace be upon him)
3. Prophet Musa (Moses) (Peace be upon him)
4. Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) (Peace be upon him)
5. Prophet Nuh (Noah) (Peace be upon him)
Some scholars consider Prophet Adam (Peace be upon him) is one of them, hence Ulul Azms are six. However, majority of scholars consider as five as stated above.
5. BELIEF IN "DAY OF JUDGEMENT"
Belief in the Day of Judgment is considered as a fundamental tenet of faith in Islam. Every human, whether Muslim or Non-Muslim, will die and be resurrected, be held accountable for their deeds and be judged by Allah Almighty accordingly.
During divine judgment, each person's Book of Deeds, in which "every small and great thing is recorded", will be opened. Throughout the judgment, the underlying principle is complete and perfect justice administered by Allah Almighty. Accounts of the judgment are also replete with the emphasis that Allah is merciful and forgiving, and that mercy and forgiveness will be granted on that day. Anyhow whoever did not accept Allah Almighty and his beloved Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) in his lifetime and those who worshiped other than Allah Almighty will be sent to the Hell.
Since Allah Almighty says in Al Quran:
"Surely, Allah does not forgive setting up of partners with Him, and He forgives (any other sin) lesser in degree for whom He wills. And whoever sets up partners with Allah certainly fabricates a horrible sin"
Chapter: 4, Verse: 48
Further Allah Almighty says in Al Quran that even the smallest acts of the believers will not be wasted.
"So whoever does an atom’s weight of good shall see it and whoever does an atom’s weight of evil shall see it."
Chapter: 99, Verse: 7-8
6. BELIEF IN DIVINE DECREE
Predestination is the sixth article of belief in Islam. In accordance with the Islamic belief in predestination, or divine preordainment (al-qadā wa'l-qadar), Allah has full knowledge and control over all that occurs. Nothing will happen without Allah's willing.
This is explained in Qur’anic verses such as:
(O Beloved!) Say: ‘Never shall (anything) befall us but what Allah has decreed for us; He alone is our Protector. And in Allah alone the believers should put their trust.’
Chapter: 9, Verse: 51
Muslims should believe that everything in the world that occurs, good or evil, has been preordained and nothing can happen unless permitted by Allah Almighty. Although events are pre-ordained, man possesses free will in that he has the faculty to choose between right and wrong, and is thus responsible for his actions. According to the Islamic belief, all that has been decreed by Allah Almighty has been written in al-Lawh al-Mahfūz, the "Preserved Tablet".
♣ WHAT IS PRAYERS?
It is the duty of every Muslim to pray five times a day. Prayers are intended to focus the mind on Allah, and is seen as a personal communication with him that expresses gratitude and worship. According to Islam, if a person offers the prayers, he will get merits and blessings of Allah Almighty, on the other hand, if he misses the prayers, he will get sins which will lead for the divine punishment.
Followings are the names of those prayers.
1. Fajr — The dawn prayer: 2 raka'at
2. Dhuhr — The noon prayer: 4 raka'at
3. Asr — The afternoon prayer: 4 raka'at
4. Maghrib — The sunset prayer: 3 raka'at
5. Isha'a — The night prayer: 4 raka'at
The Jumu'ah (Friday prayer) consists of 2 raka'at and is prayed in place of the Dhuhr prayer on Friday.
♣ WHAT IS FASTING?
It is obligatory to every Muslim to fast during the month of Ramadan. That is, abstain from eating, drinking (including water), having sex and anything against Islamic law from dawn to dusk.
♣ WHAT IS ZAKAT?
Zakat is the fixed portion of one’s wealth should be given as the Charity to the needy. Zakat, however, is not obligatory for all the Muslims, except those who exceed the limit of wealth, which is prescribed by the Islamic Jurisprudence.
♣ WHAT IS HAJJ?
Hajj is the fifth pillar of Islam. It is the pilgrimage to holy city of Makka, Saudi Arabia during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it must make the pilgrimage to Makka at least once in his or her lifetime. Rituals of the Hajj include walking seven times around the Kaaba, touching the black stone if possible, walking or running seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah and symbolically stoning the Devil in Mina.